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Perfundime - Conclusions

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Perfundime - Conclusions

Pėrfunedime nga libri “ARTI SHKĖMBOR NĖ SHQIPĖRI” Conclusions of book “ROCK ART IN ALBANIA”

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PĖRFUNDIME

 

          Pėrshkrimi i hollėsishėm i pikturės sė Lepenicės, sė Rubikut, sė Vlashnjёs, i vizatimit tė Reēit, tė Xibrit, si dhe i pikturės sė Bovillės e tё Trenit na mundėsojnė nxjerrien e disa pėrfundimeve pėr tė gjitha veprat e artit shkėmbor tė zbuluara nė Shqipėri e mė gjerė.

·               Vendi ku janė bėrė kėto vepra ka njė pozicion dominues mbi gjithė territorin dhe nė shumicėn e rasteve nė lartėsi tė konsiderueshme nga niveli i detit. Tipik ėshtė pozicioni i strehės sė Lepenicės, i shkėmbit tė Xibrit, tė Trenit, tė Bovillės etj.

·   Midis  masiveve shkėmbore ka njė zgjedhje qė ka ardhur si rezultat i njohjes shumė tė mirė tė formacioneve shkėmbore. Pikturat janė bėrė nė shkėmbinj qė i takojnė formacioneve tė tercialit, qė kanė njė fortėsi tė qėndrueshme nga agjentėt atmosferikė dhe formojnė faqe tė lėmuara, siē ėshtė shkėmbi i Spilesė (Tren), shkėmbi i Xibrit, i Reēit, i Bovillės etj.

·   Shkėmbinjtė e zgjedhur pėr realizimin e pikturave shkėmbore gjenden nė afėrsi tė vendbanimeve, nė njė distancė qė mund tė shkohet nė rastet ceremoniale, p.sh., shkėmbi i Spilesė ėshtė gjysėm km larg vendbanimt tė Trenit, piktura e Vlashnjes gjėndet 1,5 km larg vendbanimit, piktura e Lepenicės ėshtė disa kilometra nga shpella e Velēės. Ende nuk njohim vendbanimet prehistorike nė afėrsi tė pikturės sė Rubikut, tė Bovillės, tė Xibrit e tė Reēit. Tė para nė shpėrndarjen gjeografike, ēdo njėri nga realizimet e artit shkėmbor i takonte njė zone tė caktuar. Piktura e Lepenicės gjendet nė Shqipėrinė Jugperėndimore, piktura e Trenit nė Shqipėrinė Juglindore, piktura e Bovillės nė Shqipėrinė e mesme, piktura e Rubikut nė Shqipėrinė e brendėshme veriperėndimore, incizimi i Xibrit nė Shqipėrinė e brendėshme qėndrore, incizimi i Reēit nė Shqipėrinė Verilindore dhe piktura e Vlashnjёs pak kilometra jashtė kufirit Verilindor tė Shqipėrisė.

          Kėto cilėsi tė zgjedhjes sė vendit, tė pozicionit tė shkėmbit e  tė vetė faqes apo strehės ku njeriu prehistorik ka realizuar veprėn e artit, nuk janė tė rastėsishme, po rezultat i njė njohje tė plotė tė thellė tė mjedisit  qė e rrethonte. Duke zgjedhur ato shkėmbinj qė veēoheshin nga tė tjerėt pėr madhėshtinė natyrore, ai ka ditur tė krijojė njė raport me madhėshtinė e forcėn e tyre. Aty ato janė bėrė si faqet e librit, biblioteka tempuj e hapur, ku nė mėnyrė tė sintetizuar  e tё abstraguar, njeriu prehistorik arriti tė fiksojė e tė pėrjetėsojė nė faqet e shkėmbinjve konceptet mistiko-religjioze, tė flasė me gjuhėn e artit monumental me piktograme e ideograme).

          Nė pėrmbajtje, nė motivet e mjetet shprehėse, nė ideogramet, veprat e artit shkėmbor tė epokės sė holocenit janė tė njėjta ose mjaft tė pėrafėrta. Kėshtu, rrethi me katėr a mė shumė rreze ėshtė ideogrami kryesor qė i bashkon, ai  ėshtė i pranishėm nė Rubik, nė Reē, nė Xibėr, nė Bovillė. I tillė ėshtė edhe motivi i kryqit, i realizuar nė pėrmasa tė ndryshme nė Reē, nė Xibėr e nё  Rubik.

          Figura antropomorfe qё zė njė vend qendror nė pikturėn e Lepenicės, ėshtė kryesore edhe nė pikturat e Rubikut dhe pjesėrisht nė mėnyrė tė zbehtė nė incizimin e Reēit. Pėrdorimi i pikave nė  plotėsim tė figurave ėshtė piktogrami qė e ndeshim nė Lepenicė e Rubik.

          Figurat e shrregullta gjeometrike janė piktograme qė vёnė nė lidhje tė drejtpėrdrejtė Lepenicėn me Rubikun dhe me Reēin. Shenja tė kėtij piktogrami ka edhe nė Reē. Ideograme tė veēanta ka piktura e Vlashnjes, me motivin e spirales apo tė spirales dyfishe.

           Prezenca e figurave zoomorfe ėshtė nė paraqitjen e drerit  nė Vlashnje dhe nė Tren.

          Nė realizimin e veprave tė artit shkėmbor janė pėrdorur dy teknika, ajo e pikturimit me bojė tė kuqe (Lepenicė-Vlashnje) e bojė tė bardhė (Rubik, Bovillė, Tren) dhe teknika e incizimit e pėrdorur nė Reē e Xibėr.

          Midis shtatė realizimeve tė artit shkėmbor ka edhe veēanti qė shprehen nė konceptimin e pėrmbajtjes dhe nė cilėsinė e realizimit. Kėshtu, piktura e Lepenicės veēohet pėr karakterin kompleks e monumental tė saj dhe pėr mjeshtėri nė realizim. Edhe piktura e Rubikut, me pak motive, ka njė pėrmbajtje tė thellė j. Vizatimi i Reēit jo vetėm pėr nga numri i madh i motiveve por edhe nga zgjidhja kompoziocionale vendosja e figurave nė grupeka tё veēantat e veta  .

          Piktura e Vlashnjes ka tė veēantė uniformitetin e simbolit tė spirales tė bėrė nė pėrmasa monumentale e cilėsore, qė nuk i ndeshim as nė njė nga pikturat e tjera.

          Piktura e Trenit veēohet nga tė gjashtė pikturat e tjera, sepse ėshtė njė kompozim, njė skenė e plotė gjuetie  me figura reale, kalorėsit me qentė, qė ndjekim drerin. Si e tillė ajo pėrfaqėson fazėn mė tė zhvilluar tė artit prehistorik tė realizuar brenda kritereve qė kėrkonte bėrja e njė vepre tė artit shkėmbor.

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          Pėr tė kuptuar e interpretuar mė mirė dhe pėr tė datuar artin shkėmbor tė vendit tonė, na vijnė nė ndihmė elementet e pėrbashkėta qė vihen re, tė pranishme edhe nė artin shkėmbor tė vendeve tė tjera. Gjeografikisht mė afėr ėshtė piktura e Lipcit, po jo vetėm kaq. Afėritė pёrkojnё nė zgjedhjen e vendit (shkėmbit) pėr pikturim, nė paraqitjen e figurave nė siluetė (dreri), nė praninė e figurave gjeometrike  etj., si dhe nė realizimin me tė njėjtėn bojė tė bardhė.

          Mė nė veri, nė Bosnjёn Perėndimore ėshtė piktura e Zlijebit, gjithashtu e konceptuar e realizuar me tė njėjtėt parametra. Eshtė bėrė nė faqen e njė shkėmbi ku shkohet me vėshtirėsi e qė ka nė pėrmbajtje figura tė njėjta antropomorfe si Lepenica, tė kombinuara me ideograme dhe tė bėra me bojė tė bardhė.  Nė territorin tjetėr tė Ballkanit (pėr aq sa e njohim) figurat antropomorfe tė Lepenicės e Rubikut kanė analogji vetėm me figurat antropomorfe tė Tsoga-rit nė Maqedoninė greke.

          Me vlerė tė veēantė janė padyshim ngjashmėritė me artin shkėmbor tė Valcamonica nė Italinė e Veriut, ku gjatė epokės sė neolitit, eneolitit, bronzit e hekurit, lindi, u zhvillua e lulėzoi njė art shkėmbor i pėrfaqėsuar nga dhjetёra e mijėra motive e figura tė thjeshta e tė kompozuara, me skena nga mė tė ndryshmet. Dhe nė kėtė shumėsi ideogramesh e piktogramesh tė artit tė Valcamonica gjejnė simotrat e tyre motivet e figurat e artit tonė shkėmbor si figurat  antropomorfe, figurat gjeometrike me shumė ndarje, pėrdorimi i simbolit tė pikės, kryqi me krahė tė barabartė, rrethi me shumė rreze, motivi i spirales dhe figura zoomorfe, si dreri dhe kali. Tėrėsia e kėtyre ngjashmėrive ėshtė shprehje e koncepteve mistiko-religjioze tė pėrbashkėta, dėshmi e stadit tė njėjtė tė zhvillimit shoqėror.

          Piktura e Lepenicės, e Rubikut, e Bovillės, e Trenit, e Vlashnjes, incizimi i Reēit e i Xibrit, si edhe piktura e Lipcit dhe ajo e Zhlijebit karakterizohen nga njė tog elementesh tė pėrbashkėta, janė vepra tė artit shkėmbor tė bėra nė kufirin kohor nga mijėvjeēari i katėrt nė mijėvjeēarin e parė p.e.re. Nė vėshtrimin gjeografik tė kohės antike, ato i takojnė territorit tė Ilirisė sė Jugut (Tab.VIII).

          Pėr pėrkatėsinė ilire tė pikturės sė Trenit ne jemi shprehur dhe kemi argumentuar pikėpamjen tonė tė mbėshtetur nė karakterin ilir tė kulturės sė vendbanimit tė Trenit, banorёt e tė cilit kanė qenė krijuesit e saj. Studjuesit qė kanė trajtuar pikturėn e Lipcit, qė i takon mijėvjeēarit tė dytė e mijėvjeēarit tė parė p.e.re, kanė shfaqur mendimin edhe pėr bartėsit e saj. Sipas tyre ajo i takon njė popullsie autoktone ilire ose protoilire e cila kishte vende tė shenjta nė qiell tė hapur dhe tё tilla  ishin edhe vizatimet shkėmbore qė i kanė rrėnjėt tek zakonet e vjetra autoktone (Garašanin  1968).

          Pikturat e Trenit dhe  tё Lipcit  janė krijime tė popullsisė autoktone ilire. Veprat e tjera tė artit shkėmbor, tė cilat kronologjikisht janė mė tė herėshme, problemi i pėrcaktimit tė bartėsve tė tyre dhe ai i njė datimi mė tė cilėsuar mbetet i diskutueshėm. Nė njė zgjidhje sa mė tė pranueshme tė problemit na vijnė nė ndihmė dy pėrfundime tė rėndėsishme historike e arkeologjike:

          -territori i Ballkanit Perėndimor gjatė  epokės sė bronzit e tё epokės sė hekurit u karakterizua nga njė vazhdimėsi kulturore dhe etnike, qė, si rezultat edhe i  faktorėve tė tjerё, ēoi nė formimin e kulturės e tė etnosit ilir (Korkuti 2003).

          -veprat e artit shkėmbor janė krijime tė popullsive me jetėgjatėsi banimi nė tė njėjtat territore, d.m.th. tė popullsive autoktone (nė kuptimin relativ).

          Kėto janė dy arėsye qė na mundėsojnė tė shprehemi se piktura e Rubikut, e Bovillės, e Vlashnjёs, si edhe incizimi i Reēit e i Xibrit, qė u krijuan nė territorin e Ballkanit Perėndimor, janė vepėr e popullsisė protoilire, paleoilire ose e3 njė substrati etnokulturor mė tė hershėm, tė po atij territori ku nė epokėn historike jetonin ilirėt e jugut.

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          Arti prehistorik, nė tė gjithė format e tij qė ka mundur tė mbёrrijė deri nė ditėt tona ėshtė pjesё e memories sё popujve, e banorėve prehistorikё, ėshtė pjesė e evolucionit tė shoqėrisė njerėzore. Ai ashtu su edhe “muzika prehistorike (tingujt e harmonizuar) e ekzekutuar nė fillim me gurė e pllaka guri, me guacka, me brirė, kocka a drurė tė pėrpunuar, kanė qenė faktorė transfromues tė shoqėrisė. Arti dhe “muzika prehistorike”  bėjnė pjesė nė rrėnjėt e qytetėrimit, janė kapital intelektual i njerėzimit. Arti nuk fillon nė epokėn klasike po shumė mė herėt. Nė Afrikė e Australi arti shkėmbor i ka fillimet 50000-40000 vjet mė parė, nė Europė (Francė, Spanjė) ai fillon rreth 30000 vjet mė parė me kulturėn Aringacien e Magdalenien, kurse  nė Itali fillimet e kёtij arti i takojnė periudhės 12000-10000 vjet mė parė me artin shkėmbor nė Valcamonika (Italia e Veriut). Nė Shqipėri, sot pėr sot, veprėn mė tė hershme tė artit shkėmbor kemi pikturėn e Lepenicės, qė i takon epokės sė neolitit tė vonė dhe eneolitit (afėrsisht 3500-2500 p.e.re).

          Arti shkėmbor transmeton mesazhet e brezave tė krijuar si grumbullim e pėrgjithėsim i gjėrave, i fenomeneve, i veprimtarive qė janė pėrsėritur me mijra herė e nga shumė breza. Artisti anonim i ka shprehur ato nė mėnyra artistike nė piktura a forma mė tė thjeshta, si piktograme, ideograme etj. Kėshtu nė njė formė apo nė njė tjetėr, me figurat antropomorfe , me rrathėt me shumė rreze, me spiralet, me figurat e shrregullta gjeometrike, me pikat e thjeshta, me vijat etj., njeriu prehistorik ka pėrgjithėsuar njė aspekt tė veprimtarisė jetėsore, mistiko-religjioze. Rrjedhimisht, atė qė nuk ka mundur e  ditur ta “shkruaj”, e ka shprehur me figura, me rrathė, me vija, pra me simbole, tė bėra me bojė apo tė incizuara.

          Arti shkėmbor i epokės neolitike e pas neolitike ndryshon tėrėsisht nga arti i epokės paleolitike. Nė epokėn gjeologjike tė holocenit (10.000 vjet mė parė) vendin e figurave reale e tё pikturave “gjeniale” tė Laskout (Francė) e zunė vizatimet abstrakte e skematike. Kėto ndryshime filluan tė duken qysh nė periudhėn e kulturės azilien, ku vendin e pikturave e zunė vizatime tė thjeshta skematike, tė cilat shumė studjues tentuan t’i interpretonin si shenja tė shkrimit. Dhe sa mė afėr kohės sė re aq mė qartė duket perėndimi i artit tė mrekullueshėm realist i paleolitit. Nė shumė vende filluan tė shihen shenjat e artit tė ri tė epokės sė neolitit.

          Gjatė mijėvjeēarėve tė epokės neolitike ndodhėn ndryshime evolucionale nė formė e nė stilin e artit, tė cilat vazhduan gjatė epokės sė bronzit e tė hekurit nė tėrė Evropėn. Fillimisht ndryshimet u vёrejtёn  nė artin ornamental e dekorativ. Kėto u dukėn shumė mirė nė ornamentikėn e enėve prej balte, nė stilet e ndryshme tė zbukurimit tė qeramikės, ku mbizotėron ornamentika e linjave tė drejta e gjeometrike, qė plotėsoheshin me linja vertikale, zikzake, spirale etj.

          Arti i ri shkėmbor zhvillimin e tij e njohu gjatė epokės sė neolitit tė vonė, epokės sė bronzit dhe asaj tė hekurit tė hershėm. Ai ishte njė arti i ri qė kishte “gjuhėn” e vet artistike tė piktogrameve, ideogrameve, gjuhėn e figurave gjeometrike, tė simboleve universale, siē ishte, p.sh. rrethi , kryqi e spiralia pėr diellin, apo figura skematike antropomorfe e figurat e shrregullta me shumė ndarje e pika nė mes.

          Midis studiuesve tė artit shkėmbor ka pikėpamje e mendime nga mė tė ndryshmet nė leximin dhe zbėrthimin e mesazheve qė ato transmentojnė nga thellėsia e mijėvjeēarėve. Studjuesit kanė diskutuar shumė edhe pėr shkaqet e ndryshimit tė madh, d.m.th., tё kalimit nga “arti plastik i njerėzve tė epokės sė akullnajave (paleolitit), nė artin ideoplastik tė epokės sė holocenit (neolitit e vazhdim)”.

          Shkaku i vėrtetė e themelor duhet kėrkuar nė rrėnjėt e ndryshimit tė botёkuptimit tё  njerėzve, gjė qė ishte e lidhur me kalimin nga ekonomia e gjuetisė, e mbledhjes sė produkteve tė gatshme, nė lindjen e bujqėsisė e tė blegtorisė. Vėrtetėsinė e kėtij shkaku e provon fakti qė ata popuj qė mbetėn nė stadin e paleolitit, d.m.th. tė ekonomisė sė gjuetisė e tё mbledhjes sė produkteve, vazhduan tė njėjtin art.

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          Nė pėrfundim tė “udhėtimit tonė “ nga Lepenica nė Vlashnjė, nė Rubik, nė Reē, nė Xibėr, nė Bovillė e nė Tren, tė “shoqėruar” me pėrshkrime tė hollėsishme dhe me shumė foto e skica, ju kemi njohur me njė nga veprimtaritė mė tė spikatura tė qytetėrimit prehistorik, me veprat monumentale a pėrmendoret e pre e protohistorisė qė gjenden nė territorin e Shqipėrisė. Ato, me gjuhėn e njėsuar tė piktogrameve e ideogrameve, bartin nje mesazh tė madh qė na ēon nė pėrfundimin se;

·   Sa shumė gjėra tė pėrbashkėta kishte midis njerėzve,

·   Sa shumė gjėra tė prėbashkėta do tė ketė nė tė ardhmen njerėzimi.

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CONCLUSIONS

 

          The detailed description of the painting of Lepenica, Rubik, Vlashnja, the drawings of  Reēi, Xibri as well as the painting of Bovilla and Tren allow us to make some conclusions for all the works of rock art discovered in Albania.

·               These works have found all over Albanian territory and mainly in considerable altitude from the sea level. The position of the Lepenica shelter, Xibri’s rock and that of Bovilla are typical

·   There is a choice of location coming from a good working knowledge of the rock stratum. The paintings are applied on rocks that belong to the tertiary formations that are resistant to atmospheric agents and they form smooth sides as can be seen at the rock of Spile (Tren), Xibri, Reēi and Bovilla rock amongst others.

·   The selected rocks for the realization of the rock paintings are situated near settlements at a distance that can be easily traversed on special occasions for example; the rock of Spile is half kilometer away from Tren settlement, the painting of Vlashnja is situated 1,5 km away from the nearby settlements, the painting of Lepenica is some kilometers away from Velēa cave.

·   We still do not have knowledge from the prehistoric settlements near the Rubik painting, that of Bovilla, Xibri, Reē. Taking into consideration the geographical spread, each of the rock art realizations belong to a certain region. The painting of Lepenica is situated in southwestern Albania, the painting of Tren in southeast, the painting of Bovilla in central, the Rubik painting in northwest; the Xibri incision in the Central Albania, the incision of Reē in northeast and the painting of Vlashnja few kilometers away the northeast border of Albania.

          These qualities; the selection of the place, the position of the rock and the sides or the shelter where the prehistoric human has accomplished the art work; were not random, but the result of the full knowledge of the surrounding area, selecting those rocks that were detached from the others because of the natural immensity. He knew to create a connection with the magnificence and force of the location and these are the book’s pages, libraries- the open temples where abstractedly he managed to apply, to bring to life, the mystic religious concepts, speaking with the language of monumental art with pictograms and ideograms.

          Considering the content, the motives and the means of expression, in ideograms, the rock art works of the Holocene period are similar or almost approximate. Therefore the circle with four or more radii, is the main ideogram that connects the works together.  It is present in Rubik, Reē, Xibėr and Bovilla. The same is true of the cross motif realized in different measures in Reē, Xibėr and Rubik.

          The anthropomorphic figure, which covers a central part in the painting of Lepenica, is central, even in the paintings of Rubik and partly in Reē incision.

The use of dots for the fulfillment of the figures is the pictogram encountered in Lepenica and Rubik .

The irregular geometric figures are pictograms which directly link Lepenica with Rubik and Reē. Traces of this pictogram are encountered in Reē as well. The painting of Vlashnja has some particular ideograms, with the spiral motive or the double spiral.

           The deer in the painting of Vlashnja and Tren shows the presence of the zoomorphic figure.

          In the accomplishments of the rock art two techniques were used; painting in a red color (Lepenica –Vlashnja), and the painting in white (Rubik, Bovilla, Tren) and the incision technique used in Reē and Xibėr.

There are also some particularities between the seven realizations of rock art, namely the content concept and the quality of realization. Therefore the painting of Lepenica is distinguished for its complex and monumental character as well as for its proficiency. The painting of Rubik has a few motifs with a deep content. The drawing of Reē has its own peculiarities for the number of the motif, the compositional choice and the position of the shapes in groups.

          The uniformity and the spiral symbol carried out in monumental and qualitative measures are characteristic for the painting of Vlashnja, which are not encountered in any of the other paintings.

The painting of Tren is distinguished from the other six paintings because it is a composition of a full hunting scene with real figures, the horsemen with dogs that are chasing the deer. It represents the most developed phase of the prehistoric art realized within the criteria that the accomplishment of a rock art work requires.

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          Some common elements present even in other countries’ rock art facilitate a better understanding, interpretation and dating of the rock art in our country.

The painting of Lipcit is geographically nearer, but not only this. The similarities coincides with the choice of the place to draw (the rock), in the display of the silhouette figure (the deer) and in the presence of geometrical shapes etc. and as well as being realized in a white color.

The painting of Zhlijeb, further to the north, in western Bosnia, has been conceived and realized under the same parameters.  It is applied on the rock’s side where a human can barely reach. It contains similar anthropomorphic shapes like the Lepinica painting combined with ideograms carried out in a white color. In the other territories of the Ballkans (as far as we know) the anthropomorphic shapes of Lepenica and Rubik have analogies only with the anthropomorphic figure of Tsogari in Greek Macedonia.

It is worth mentioning the similarities with the Valcamonica rock art in North Italy, where during the Neolithic, Eneolithic, Bronze and Iron Ages, was initiated and developed a dynamic and rock art, represented with tens and thousands of motifs, simple and complicated shapes with different scenes. Therefore among this plethora of ideograms and pictograms of Valcamonica art we find motifs and figure similarities with the rock art in Albania in the anthropomorphic and geometric shapes with a lot of allotments, the use of the dot symbol, the cross with equal arms, the circle with many radii, the spiral motive and zoomorphic shapes as with the deer and the horse.  All these similarities express common mystic –religious concepts, testimony of the same development period.

          The painting of Lepenica, Rubik, Bovilla, Tren, Vlashnja, incision of Reē and Xibėr as well as the painting of Lipcit and Zhlijeb characterized by a number of common elements, are rock art works carried out in the period from the fourth millennium to first millennium B.C. In the geographical point of view of the ancient period, they belong to the territory of Southern Illyria (Tab.VIII).

          Concerning the attribution of the painting of Tren to an Illyrian cultural milleu, we have already expressed arguments regarding the Illyrian character of the culture of Tren settlement which is its likely source. The researchers who have investigated the painting of Lipci that belongs to the second and first millennium B.C suggested the same for its creators. According to them this Illyrian and protoillyrian autochthonos population had sacred places, represented in some cases by rock drawings deriving from ancient customs (Garašanin 1968).

          Since the painting of Tren and Lipci were creation of an Illyrian population, for other works of rock art, which are chronologically earlier, the problems of the determination of their authors and the dating are still questionable. Two important historic and archeological conclusions make it easier to find an acceptable solution:

          -the territory of the Western Balkans during the Bronze and Iron Ages were characterized by a cultural and ethnic continuity, as a result of other factors; lead to the formation of the culture of the Illyrian ethnos. (Korkuti 2003).

          -the works of rock art are creations of the populations of in the same territory, that is the of the autochthonos populations.

These are the two reasons that enable to state that the painting of Rubiku, Bovilla, Vlashnja, the incision of Reē and Xibri, that were created in the territory of western Balkan, are creations of the protoillyrian or paleoillyrian population or of an earlier ethno cultural substratum of the same territory where the southern Illyrians lived during the historic period.

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          Prehistoric art, in all its forms, that has survived until today is part of our collective memory. Like “prehistoric music” (the harmonized sounds), which in the in the beginning was performed with stones and slabs, with shells, with horns, processed bones or wood, it has been a factor in the transformation of society. Art and “prehistoric music” are part of the basis of civilization and human’ intellectual capital. Art began earlier than the classical period. In Africa and Australia rock art has its origin 50000-40000 years ago, In Europe (France and Spain) it begins about 30000 years ago with the Auringacian and Magdalenian cultures, while in Italy the early stages of rock art, 12000-10000 years ago, commenced with the rock art in Valcamonica (North Italy). In Albania, the painting of Lepenica is the most ancient rock art work that belongs to the period of Late Neolithic and Eneolithic (approximately 3500-2500 B.C).

          Rock art transmits the messages of the generations who created it as a gathering and generalization of the things, phenomena and activities that were repeated by many generations and the anonymous artist has expressed those in artistic way in paintings or in simpler forms as pictograms and ideograms. Therefore in one form or another with the anthropomorphic figure, with the circles with many radii, with the spirals, irregular geometric shapes, with simple dots, with the lines, the prehistoric human has generalized an aspect of vital, mystic–religious activity, consequently that what he could not “write” he expressed with painted or incised figure, circles, symbols.

          The rock art of the eneolithic and later Neolithic periods totally differs from the art of the Paleolithic period. In the geological period of Holocene (10000 years ago) the real shapes of the Lescaux (France) “genius ” paintings were replaced with abstract and schematic drawings. These changes appeared in the period of the Azilien culture, where the paintings were replaced with simple schematic drawings, which many scholars attempted to interpret as writing. After the wonderful Paleolithic art disappeared, in some places appeared signs of the development of a new Neolithic art.

          During the Neolithic period, some evolutional changes in form and style were noticed, which continued after the Bronze and Iron Ages through all Europe. In the beginning the changes were noticed in ornamental and decorative art.

          The new rock art culminated during the late Neolithic, Bronze, and early Iron Ages. It was a new art that has its own artistic “language” of pictograms, ideograms, the language of the geometric shapes, universal symbols, like the circles, cross and spiral for the sun, or the schematic anthropomorphic figures and irregular shapes with many divisions and dots in the middle.

          Scholars of the rock art have different opinions on the understanding of the messages that they transmit. The reasons for the huge change in style have been discussed as well, that means, the transition from plastic art of the humans of the glacier period (Paleolithic) to the ideoplastic art of the Holocene period (from the Neolithic period onwards)

          The main and fundamental cause should be searched in the basis of a people’s mentality that was itself related to the transition from the economy of hunting and gathering of the end-products to the development of agriculture and farming. The truth of this cause is proved by the fact that the Paleolithic population, that is the economy of hunting and food gathering, contributed to a single style of art.

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          In the end of “our journey” from Lepenica to Vlashnja, in Rubik, in Reē, in Xibėr, in Bovilla and Tren, accompanied with detailed descriptions and many photos and sketches, we have represented one of the most prominent activities of the prehistoric civilization, with the monumental works or memorials of pre and protohistory found in Albanian territory. They, with their integrated language bear a great message  namely that:

          -How many things in people had in common .

          -How many things in common people will have in the future.

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